• The following information is provided and cited to support the anticipated benefits of the 2019 Capital Project, as proposed by Greenburgh Central School District. When available, article titles are presented as clickable links that will redirect you to the source materials. Please note that by clicking these links, you will be redirected to websites outside of the Greenburgh Central School District’s website, www.greenburghcsd.org.

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    The Impact of Classroom Design on Pupils’ Learning: Final Results of a Holistic, Multi-level Analysis
    This detailed comparison of a variety of elementary classroom environments in the UK, states that 16% of variation in student achievement is based on physical environment after accounting for demographics and other factors.

    Source: Barrett, Davies, Zhang & Barrett; “The Impact of Classroom Design on Pupils’ Learning: Final Results of a Holistic, Multi-level Analysis”; Building and Environment Journal, volume 89, 2015, pp. 118-133; www.elsevier.com/locate/buildenv


    The 21stCentury Learning Environment: What It Is & Why It Matters
    This article outlines the principals of, and provides conceptual justification for, 21stCentury learning environments.

    Source: Collins, Randy; “The 21stCentury Learning Environment: What it is and Why it Matters”; CS-ARCH Knowledge Posting, February 22, 2016; https://www.csarchpc.com/knowledge/21st-century-learning-environment-matters/


    Grade Span Configurations
    This article summarizes research and outlines principles on grade span configurations.

    Source: Howley, Craig; “Grade Span Configurations”; The School Administrator Web Edition, American Association of School Administrators, Posted March 2002; http://www.aasa.org/SchoolAdministratorArticle.aspx?id=10410


    School Building Condition, Social Climate, Student Attendance & Academic Achievement:
    Mediation Model

    This Cornell study of NYC middle school environments states that 70% of variation of student achievement on NYS standardized tests can be predicted based on building condition surveys, and links classroom environment to student attendance and student satisfaction ratings on surveys.

    Source: Maxwell, Lorraine; “School Building Condition, Social Climate, Student Attendance and Academic Achievement: A Mediation Model”; Journal of Environmental Psychology, volume 46, 2016, pp 206-216; www.elsevier.com/locate/jep


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    School transitions are related to a variety of behavioral and psychological changes. Research indicates that across transitions, students often experience changes in relationships with peers, parents, and teachers. In addition, behavioral problems often become evident after a school transition, which is particularly true when students interact with new peer groups after the transition.

    Much research has examined changes in academic variables after transitions; many transitions are related to notable changes in students' motivation to learn, academic performance, and attitudes toward school.

    The Effect of Grade Span Configuration & School-to-School Transition on Student Achievement
    This article supports the stated anticipated benefit that “fewer transitions lead to improved student performance socially academically”. Its findings include:

    • “The stressors involved in each school-to-school transition are so critical that they may neutralize or even diminish the achievement gains in the previous school setting.”
    • “Reducing the number of school-to-school transitions has been strongly suggested in order to provide more stability for students.”
    • “When schools have broader grade-spans, students make fewer school-to-school transitions; this has a positive impact on student performance. “

    Source: Wren, S. D. (2003). “The effect of grade span configuration and school-to-school transition on student achievement”; ERIC Database (ED479332); https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED479332


    Early Predictors of School Performance Declines at School Transition Points
    According to this 2008 article, students achieve lower test scores on standardized tests following each school-to-school transition, and it may take two to three years to get the test scores up to the level that they were before the transition. The authors purport that when students experience two school-to-school transitions, they score lower than the students who must only transition once.

    Source: Malaspina, D., & Rimm-Kaufman, S. (2008); “Early predictors of school performance declines at school transition points”; RMLE Online: Research in Middle Level Education, 31(9), 1-16; https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/19404476.2008.11462052


    Can Reorganizing K-8 Education Improve Academic Performance? The Impact of Grade Span on Student Achievement
    According to this 2009 article, schools should be developed with wider grade-span configurations to minimize school-to-school transitions.

    Source: Schwartz, A. E., Stiefel, L., Rubenstein, R., & Zabel, J. (2009); “Can reorganizing K-8 education improve academic performance? The impact of grade span on student achievement (Wagner Research paper 2010-06); New York, NY: New York University, Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Service.

    The Impact of School Transitions in Early Adolescence on the Self-Esteem & Perceived Social Context of Poor Urban Youth.
    This study concludes that a loss in self-esteem following each transition may create the underlying cause of the academic decline shown by students and the increased risk of dropping out of school. It additionally states that students having to make two transitions is known as “double jeopardy”.

    Source: Seidman, E., Allen, L., Aber, J.L., Mitchell, C., & Feinman, J. (1994). The impact of school transitions in early adolescence on the self-system and perceived social context of poor urban youth. Child Development, 65(2), 507-522.


    School Effects on Psychological Outcomes During Adolescence
    This 2002 study asserts that if students remain in one school setting over a number of years, they feel an increased sense of belonging to the school. It goes on to conclude that creating schools with wider grade spans allows students to get all of the benefits of a small school within a large school.

    Source: Anderman, E. M. (2002). School effects on psychological outcomes during adolescence. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94(4), 795-809.


    Extracurricular Participation and the Transition to Middle School
    This study reports that “transitions can have a profound impact on students academically, socially and psychologically.”

    Source: Akos, P. (2006). Extracurricular participation and the transition to middle school. RMLE Online: Research in Middle Level Education, 29(9), 1-9.


    Transition to middle school building and academic achievement in Iowa
    This 2010 report supports the fact that “transitions which occur more than once can be even more damaging to students”.

    Source: Linnenbrink, M. (2010). Transition to middle school building and academic achievement in Iowa. DesMoines, IA: Intersect, Iowa Department of Education.


    Effects of Building Change on Indicators of Student Academic Growth
    The authors of this piece determined that assisting students following a school-to-school transition may impede upon instructional time. If teachers are helping students adjust to their new schools within the district every two or three years, a significant amount of instructional time is being wasted.

    Source: Sanders, W. L., Saxton, A. M., Schneider, J. F., Dearden, B. L., Wright, S. P. & Horn, S. P. (1994). Effects of building change on indicators of student academic growth. Evaluation Perspectives, 4(1), 3,7.


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    Princeton study on impact of school bond passage on district housing prices

    “Passage of a bond measure causes housing prices in the district to rise by about six percent. This effect persists for at least a decade.”

    Source: The Value of School Facilities: Evidence from a Dynamic Regression Discontinuity Design; Stephanie Riegg Cellini (George Washington University), Fernando Ferreira (University of Pennsylvania), Jesse Rothstein (Princeton University); CEPS Working Paper No. 180; November 2008


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    Greenburgh CSD & NYS Education Department 2018 Building Condition Survey/5-Year Capital Plan
    This plan details and prioritizes the $70 million of needed repairs for the district over 5-years.

    Source: H2M Architects and Engineers, GCSD New York State Education Department 2018 Building Condition Survey and Five-Year Capital Plan, May 1, 2018