• Final Study Guide 


    Fact: can be proven

    Opinion: cannot be proven; look for words like “best, more, superior, was not”

    Primary Source: eye-witness accounts of events (Examples: diary, autobiography).

    Secondary Source: not from direct source; not an eye-witness account of an event

    (Example: textbook).

    13th Amendment: granted legal rights to African Americans

    14th Amendment: granted legal rights to African Americans

    15th Amendment: granted legal rights to Africans Americans

    Literacy Tests: limited the rights of formerly enslaved persons in Southern states

    Poll Taxes: limited the rights of formerly enslaved persons in Southern states

    Grandfather Clauses: limited the rights of formerly enslaved persons in Southern states

    Racial Segregation: separation of people based on race; Jim Crow laws created segregation in the South

    “Separate but equal”: stated in Plessy vs. Ferguson; justified racial segregation of public facilities

    Muckrakers: journalists who alerted the public to the wrongdoings in politics and business; they worked to bring about change in society through their writing

    Jacob Riis: muckraker who exposed corruption and abuses in society

    Upton Sinclair: muckraker who exposed corruption and abuses in society

    Tenements: little apartments that many immigrants were forced to ive in because they did not make a great deal of money; tenements were crowded and dirty

    Urbanization: people moving into cities; created by industrialization (factories) in the North

    Trusts: a group of companies managed by the same owner; bad for consumers because they are not given choice

    Statue of Liberty: given to the U.S. by France; symbolizes freedom and hope; landmark that immigrants who entered through New York first saw; Emma Lazarus’ poem, “The New Colossus” is engraved on the Statue’s pedestal; most famous words from the poem are “give me your tired, your poor, your huddled masses yearning to breathe free”

    Yellow Journalism: printing sensational (exaggerated) stories using illustrations and vivid headlines to draw in the reader; Used to influence public opinion

    Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points: created the League of Nations

    Harlem Renaissance: increased awareness of African American contributions to American culture

    Hoovervilles: during the Great Depression, this is where poor, unemployed people lived; called this to criticize the federal government, especially Herbert Hoover

    Social Security Act: created by Franklin D. Roosevelt under the New Deal; established a system of unemployment insurance and pensions for retired workers

    “Rosie the Riveter”: wartime symbol of the growing role of women in factories

    Holocaust: mass extermination of Jewish people and other “undesirables” by Adolf Hitler during WWII

    Internment Camps: created after the bombing of Pearl Harbor; Japanese Americans were placed in these camps out of fear that they were spies for

    the Japanese and a threat to Americans; camps had fences around them and the Japanese Americans were essentially prisoners



    1. Why were laws that established literacy tests, poll taxes, and grandfather clauses passed by Southern states after the Reconstruction Era?
      1. To limit the rights of formerly enslaved persons


    1. Why did the U.S. become an imperialist nation in the late 1800s?
      1. Because the U.S. acquired overseas territories


    1. Why did immigration to the U.S. increase rapidly between 1895 and 1905?
      1. Industrial growth provided factory jobs for immigrants     
    1. Place the following events in chronological order.
    1. Archduke of Austria-Hungary assassinated
    2. World War I begins
    3. Lusitania sunk (unrestricted submarine warfare)
    4. United States declares war on Germany     


    1. What was one reason why Prohibition failed?
      1. Many Americans did not support the law
    1. What are some events/terms that are associated with the Roaring Twenties?
      1. Fads and flappers
      2. Harlem Renaissance
      3. Stock Market Crash
    1. How did the U.S. respond to the attack on Pearl Harbor?
      1. Declared war on Japan
    1. Which group was placed into internment camps during WWII?
      1. Japanese Americans