• Course Information -OUTLINE

    Science Grade 8

    The foundation for this course is the New York State Core Curriculum for grade 8 Science. This course will develop a basic understanding in the concepts of Physical Science. It will emphasize the development of individual student skills in science reading, laboratory work, record keeping, measurements, and conceptual learning.

    Students will explore subjects involving the properties of matter, basic chemistry, forces, motion, work, simple machines, energy, electricity, heat energy, mixtures and solutions.

    Students are required to take New York State Science Performance and Written Tests 

     

     

    Course information Section 1 PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES

    The materials in this chapter introduce and cover physical and chemical changes. It is organized into sections that teach, reinforce and test students on the concepts of matter, physical and chemical properties, and physical and chemical changes.

    Lessons are organized into the following sections:

    • Matter - Students are taught how to distinguish matter from non-matter.
    • Physical and chemical properties - Students will learn how to tell the difference between the physical and chemical properties of matter.
    • Physical and chemical changes - Students must learn how to distinguish between physical and chemical changes.

     

    Course Information Section 2 ATOMS, ELEMENTS, & COMPOUNDS

    Atoms, Elements, and Compounds

    The materials in this chapter introduce and cover atoms, elements, and compounds. It is organized into sections that teach, reinforce and test students on the concepts of atoms, elements, isotopes, ions, compounds and molecules, and ionic and covalent bonding.

    Lessons are organized into the following sections:

    • Atoms - Students are taught how to describe the structure of an atom, and explain how matter is made of atoms.
    • Elements - Students learn how to distinguish elements from other types of matter and describe the atoms of an element.
    • Isotopes - Students must learn how to distinguish between the different isotopes of an element.
    • Ions - Students are taught how to describe how ions are formed from atoms.
    • Compounds and molecules - Students learn how to tell the difference between compounds, molecules, and elements.
    • Ionic and covalent bonding - Students must be able to explain how atoms can form ionic and covalent bonds.
     

    Course Information Section 3 MIXTURES & SOLUTIONS

    Mixtures and Solutions

    The materials in this chapter introduce and cover mixtures and solutions. It is organized into sections that teach, reinforce and test students on the concepts of mixtures and solutions and separating mixtures.

    Lessons are organized into the following sections:  

    • Mixtures and solutions - Students are taught how to identify the solvent and solute in a solution, and distinguish mixtures and solutions from pure substances.
    • Separating mixtures - Students will learn how to describe methods for separating a mixture into its components.

     

    Course Information Section 4 PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS

    The Periodic Table

    The materials in this chapter introduce and cover the Periodic Table. It is organized into sections that teach, reinforce and test students on the concepts of introduction to the periodic table and regions of the periodic table.

    Lessons  are organized into the following sections:

    • Introduction to the periodic table - Students are taught how to locate an element on the periodic table and identify its atomic number, mass, and number of protons, neutrons, and electrons.
    • Regions of the periodic table - Students learn how to locate major categories of elements on the periodic table, including metals, metalloids, nonmetals, and noble gases,
    • and describe the reactivity within a group/family and period/series.

    Course Information Section 5 CHEMICAL FORMULAS & REACTIONS

    Chemical Formulas and Reactions

    The materials in this chapter introduce and cover chemical formulas and reactions. It is organized into sections that teach, reinforce and test students on the concepts of chemical formulas, chemical reactions, reaction rates, conservation of matter in reactions, balancing chemical equations, and endothermic and exothermic reactions.

    Lessons are organized into the following sections:

    • Chemical formulas - Students must be able to determine the number of atoms of each element in a chemical formula containing subscripts and coefficients.
    • Chemical reactions - Students will learn how to identify a chemical reaction and distinguish the reactants from the products.
    • Reaction rates - Students are taught how to explain the effects of temperature, concentration, surface area, and catalysts on the rate of chemical reactions.
    • Conservation of matter in reactions - Students must learn to describe how matter is conserved in a closed system.

     

    Course Information Section 6 STATES OF MATTER

    STATES OF MATTER

    The materials in this chapter introduce and cover the states of matter. It is organized into sections that teach, reinforce and test students on the concepts of atomic and molecular motion, states of matter, and changes of state.

    Lessons are organized into the following sections:

    • Atomic and molecular motion - Students are taught how to describe movement of atoms and molecules in solids, liquids and gases.
    • States of matter - Students must be able to tell the difference between solids, liquids, gases, and plasmas.
    • Changes of state - Students will learn how to describe how matter can change from one state to another. 

    Course Information Section 7 ENERGY, FORCE, and MOTION

    ENERGY

    The materials in this section introduce and cover the concept of energy. It is organized into sections that teach, reinforce and test students on the concepts of types of energy, potential and kinetic energy, energy transformations, energy loss, conservation of energy, work, simple machines, and mechanical advantage and efficiency.

    Lessons are organized into the following sections:

    • Types of energy– Students are taught how to compare and contrast the different forms of energy (heat, light, electricity, nuclear, mechanical motion, sound) and their characteristics.
    • Potential and kinetic energy– Students must learn how to tell the difference between potential and kinetic energy.
    • Energy transformations– Students will learn how to explain how energy can be changed from one form to another as it moves through a system, or how it can be transferred from one system to another system.
    • Energy loss– Students are taught to identify energy transformations in which some energy may be lost as heat.
    • Conservation of energy– Students will learn to apply the law of conservation of energy to analyze energy transformations.
    • Work– Students must learn how to distinguish situations where work is done from situations where work is not done.
    • Simple machines– Students are taught to differentiate between the six simple machines (lever, inclined plane, pulley, wedge, screw, and wheel and axle).
    • Mechanical advantage and efficiency– Students will learn how to analyze the mechanical advantage and efficiency of a machine.

    FORCE

    The materials in this section introduce and cover the concept of force. It is organized into sections that teach, reinforce and test students on the concepts of introduction to forces, analyzing forces, balanced forces, forces and motion, mass and inertia, calculating force, mass, and acceleration, action and reaction forces, Newton’s Laws of Motion, and momentum.

    Lessons are organized into the following sections:

    • Introduction to forces– Students are taught how to identify, measure, and describe common forces acting on objects, including friction, gravity, compression, and tension.
    • Analyzing forces– Students will learn how to determine the net force on an object.
    • Balanced forces– Students must learn how to tell the difference between objects on which balanced and unbalanced forces are acting.
    • Forces and motion– Students are taught how to predict the qualitative effect of an unbalanced force on the motion of an object.
    • Mass and Inertia– Students are taught how to predict how the same force will have different effects on different masses.
    • Calculating force, mass, and acceleration– Students will learn how to calculate force, mass, or acceleration using the formula F = ma.
    • Action and reaction forces– Students must learn how to identify action-reaction force pairs.
    • Newton’s Laws of Motion– Students are taught how to identify examples of each of Newton’s laws of motion.
    • Momentum– Students must learn how to define momentum and relate forces applied to an object to the object’s change in momentum.

     

    MOTION

    The materials in this section introduce and cover the concept of motion. It is organized into sections that teach, reinforce and test students on the concepts of position, graphing position, speed, calculating speed, graphing speed, velocity, and acceleration.

    Lessons are organized into the following sections:

    • Position– Students must learn how to describe the position of an object based on a reference point and a coordinate system.
    • Graphing position– Students are taught how to create a position-versus-time graph for a given situation, and interpret the results of a position-versus-time graph.
    • Speed– Students will learn how to define speed and distinguish measurements of speed from other scientific measurements.
    • Calculating speed– Students are taught how to calculate the average speed of an object given distance and time measurements.
    • Graphing speed– Students are taught how to describe the motion of an object given a graph of its speed versus time.
    • Velocity– Students will learn how to distinguish between speed and velocity.
    • Acceleration– Students must learn how to classify objects with changing speed or direction as accelerating, and recognize constant acceleration and deceleration on a graph of speed vs. time.